Кратко о журнале «Бизнес Территория»
In the 60s of the 20th century, science fiction dawned. Writers took on the role of futurists. It seemed to everyone that soon robots will replace people in all simple jobs, cars will fly through the air, and on the planet Mars will grow gardens. But no one could retell the appearance of the Internet.
About a computer rat with intelligence
Today, industrial philosophers are trying to guess the direction of industrial development. Following the promulgation by Germany of the national industrial doctrine Industry 4,0,all the world`s experts began talking about industrial drivers such as composite materials, Internet of Things (IoT), large data (BIG DATA), etc. Again, it all comes down to building a flexible, robotic, uninhabited production, which has been talked about for half a century, instead of traditional conveyors. I am sure that development will go this time in a different direction. Without work, they will soon not be working at routine operations, but again "white-collar workers" in offices.
We are already seeing progress, for example, in medicine, primarily medical diagnostics. In order to correctly diagnose data from a computer tomograph, doctors of the highest qualification are required. Such specialists are taught for a long time, but too few are able to become professionals. More recently, researchers have demonstrated that software complexes based on neural networks not only find tumor images better than physicians, but also successfully diagnose on the basis of global knowledge bases. It turned out that the activity of radiologists is rather a predictive identification of interrelations, rather than logical analysis. They can not name the cause of cancer - they only know what it is. Approximately on the same principle, the latest algorithms for machine translation of tests from different languages, created by Google. We are standing on the threshold when artificial intelligence (AI) will manage the shops, factories, provinces and whole countries more qualitatively and pragmatically.
Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. It was registered as a private company on January 4, 1996, and on August 19, 2004, began selling its shares on the stock market. The mission of the company stated from the very beginning was "the organization of world information, ensuring its accessibility and benefits for all". Google manages more than a million servers in data centers around the world and processes more than one billion search queries. The average human brain consists of approximately 100 billion neurons. Each neuron has up to 10 thousand connections with other neurons, that is, synapses of only 100 to 1,000 trillion. We are still far from creating such large-scale neural networks, but the achievements of Google Brain allowed scientists to create artificial neural networks, comparable already with the brain of a rat.
Suppose a computer rats have to guess the cat. The computer intelligence of a rat is not in itself able to do it. However, if you have a million different people who can assemble into billions of variant groups, you can learn to classify the data with incredible accuracy. Your even non-trained electorate is able to look at the unmarked image of a cat and identify it. But the AI unifying them will surpass all expectations for the accuracy of solving this problem with a cat.
When did it all start?
The term "smart production" was first introduced in 2007 by the owner of the engineering company Solver from Russia Radislav Birbraer. He, perhaps, was the first in the world to apply FEM (finite element method) in the practice of calculating machines. He began applying FEM to calculate heavy presses. These presses were manufactured in the USSR at the Voronezh plant "Tyazhmehpress" and were supplied to automobile plants of all developed countries.
The finite element method (MCE) is a numerical method for solving partial differential equations, as well as integral equations arising in the solution of problems of applied physics. The method is used to solve the problems of mechanics of a deformed solid body, heat transfer, hydrodynamics and electrodynamics.
MKE, the long-known theoretical method of engineering calculations, Radislav Birbraer was supplemented by models of contact interaction of solids, which created the conditions for the appearance of CAD-modern CAD systems. A few years later, in the US, which began to implement a policy of localization on its territory of the IT industry, graphic displays and visualization programs for engineering calculations were created. Throughout the world, the process of replacing culmination with computers began. The technical revolution did not start in the production halls, as everyone had expected, but in the most intellectual knot of industrial enterprises - design bureaus and design studios.
A new technological revolution
The same thing will happen now. As soon as a sufficiently reliable algorithm appears for revealing non-obvious relationships in one sphere of life, it can be applied almost immediately to another field. A neural network created by Google to translate text can, for example, learn very quickly millions of pages of legal documents, in order to lack the lives of a million of the most qualified lawyers, it can analyze millions of court decisions and business histories. And why after this will be needed millions of officials, managers, economists, financial consultants, real estate agents?
And who changed the world? It did not take millions of programmers. At first, the Google team engaged in the creation of AI on the basis of neural networks were one or two researchers, then three or four, and towards the end of them there were no more than a hundred. And yet, now in the IT industry, fundamental changes are taking place, which neither governments nor ordinary people have yet realized. A small group of scientists from the company Brain demonstrated that there is a desire, it is always possible to change the paradigm of human development in just 9 months. But the wave of transformations will affect colossal institutions like Google, Facebook or Yandex. As soon as computers can learn themselves, the profession of the programmer will also be under threat.
The project is implemented under the management of Google CEO Sundar Pichai, who was once born in Chennai, (India). He received a diploma in metallurgy at the Indian Institute of Technology in the city of Haragpur. He received his Masters degree at Stanford University with a degree in Material Science and Engineering, and his MBA at the Wharton Business School. He moved to Google in 2004. In 2014, he became the head of Google products, and soon after the formation of a new holding company, Google Alphabet Inc was appointed to the post of general director of the corporation.
"Google Brain" began in 2011 as a third-party research project of Googles research fellow Jeff Dean, Google researcher Greg Corradoren and Stanford University professor Andrew Eun. They wanted to fulfill the mission of creating: "artificial neural networks that learn the world through trial and error as babies, as a result, can develop the flexibility inherent in people."
Everyone knows that Googles "Translator" service appeared in 2006 and has since become one of Googles most popular services; a month it was used by more than 500 million people, who every day translated for 140 billion words into different languages. And recently the "Translator" has changed: now most of its traffic is handled by AI. According to user estimates, it has improved qualitatively. Googles decision to switch the "Translator" service to the principles of a neural network was a clear signal to make a breakthrough in machine learning, such a passionate desire has recently covered the entire IT industry. Over the past four years, large companies - Google, Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Microsoft and Chinese firm Baidu, among others - have entered into a battle for talented experts in the field of AI.
With some delay about the incident, it became known to Russian President Vladimir Putin, who in 2017 "fell ill" with the digital economy. Russian Yandex, too, even late for a full circle, entered the race. The race in the field of AI began to resemble a race for the possession of an atomic bomb. Even Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, personally participates in his companys attempts to lure the best specialists.
The meaning of the phrase "artificial intelligence" seems obvious, but everyone has always perceived it in different ways. As soon as we automate some function, we devalue the necessary human skill for it before mechanical work. However, artificial intelligence is also an intellect that blindly does not follow instructions. He is endowed with the ability to recognize subtext, interpret meanings. It is a tool designed to solve a wide variety of problems, achieve in the general context of the most incredible set of goals. And it is almost impossible to deceive. Who else was involved in this project? Jeff Dean, only a senior research fellow, but de facto is the head of Google Brain.
Dean was born into a family of medical anthropologist and epidemiologist, and his childhood was everywhere - in Minnesota, Hawaii, Arkansas, Uganda, Somalia and Atlanta. He has been with Google since 1999. Andrew Eun, a young Stanford professor of computer science who worked as a consultant in the company. Greg Corrado and Kuoka Le disciples Andrew Ynoma. It was with their arrival that Google engineers began to call Project Marvin differently: Google Brain.
11 октября 2018 года (четверг) в московском Экспоцентре на Красной Пресне состоится II Форум пищевого машиностроения. Узнайте новости отрасли и планы правительства по развитию и субсидированию от лучших экспертов страны.
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